Chomutov is placed at the foot of the Ore Mountains in north-west Bohemia in the vicinity of the German border. It was established on the crossroads of previous business routes connecting Prague with Leipzig and Cheb with Ústí nad Labem.
The settlement process commenced during the Stone Age. The first written record of the town originates in 1252, when Bedřich Načeradec gave the small town to the Order of German Knights as a gift. The historical monuments, which are still maintained in the vicinity of 1.máje Square, were established during the middle ages. After 1411, Chomutov became a security town, when Václav the IV removed it from the Order. Numerous feudal owners ruled in Chomutov. The most significant Lords included the Lords of Vřesovice, Calta of Kamená Hora, Veitmil, and Lobkowicz.
At the end of the 16th century, Jiří Popel of Lobkowicz established the Jesuit College and Grammar School. Alum excavation started as soon as the 16th century. The Alum Lake was established in the 19th century in the mining area and it became a recognized spa and holiday resort. A significant turning point in the history of Chomutov was the year 1605, when the town was bought from the royal chamber and became a free and later royal town.
Fast development in the 19th century resulted from the growth of coal mining and the iron industry. The town grew and upon joining Horní Ves in 1938, the number of inhabitants amounted to thirty thousand. After World War II, the industrial businesses and housing development expanded. New urban settlements, constructed during the seventies, connected Chomutov with the neighbouring Jirkov. After 1989, heavy industry decreased and the environment in the town significantly improved. The development of recreational activities in the Alum Lake resort, Podkrušnohorský zoo-park and Bezruč Valley became the priority.